Let's contrast that with something that's clearly not alive, a car. We will also discuss what science (and biology) are as a discipline of inquiry and how chemistry is foundational to understanding biology. If they can't reproduce on their own, does that mean they don't meet the criteria for being alive? 2 See answers Answer 5.0 /5 1 +2 rosariomividaa3 and 2 others learned from this answer Answer: a virus is an infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microscopy, and is able to multiply only within the living cells of a host. Now we've move on from zombies to vampires. Whether you decide if it is alive or not, organize your ideas to persuade someone who disagrees with you that you are correct. How about evolve? I eat food that my body can use for energy, said otherwise, I can turn my breakfast into energy for a run this afternoon. Yes, it does. The lab is air-conditioned Unlike Chemistry labs, you don’t need to worry about weird chemical stuff getting into the ventilation system (Is that what its called? They have to use host cell machinery. Water and nutrients are transported up from the soil. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that Quiz not found! But how do we know they're alive? Yes, it does, I need to put gas in my car after all, and if you have an electric car, you'll need to plug it in. In this module we'll discuss what it means to be alive. Evolution in the simplest terms is descent with modification, or how genes change over time in response to environmental pressures. An individual virus particle or a virion is a nucleic acid wrapped up in fats or proteins. 13 plays . Is COVID-19 alive or was the global pandemic actually caused by a real-world zombie-vampire monster? Now, this list may be different from things that you've seen in your other biology courses before. ABOUT. Certain things like viruses meet some of those criteria, but not others. Yes, it does. In fact, the definition used here has three parts. Life occurs in many incredible forms in many unexpected places. Others say there's no evidence for it. It’s Alive, But Is It Life: Synthetic Biology and the Future of Creation For decades, biologists have read and edited DNA, the code of life. The understanding of COVID-19 at the time this video is produced suggests COVID-19 is less prone to mutations, but it will still mutate and evolve over time. or not, organize your ideas to persuade someone who disagrees with you Does a tree evolve? How is this connected to the environment they live in. Maybe. Tree Preview this quiz on Quizizz. The first is that something is alive if it is an organized system of molecules that can use energy and nutrients (a process called metabolism ) to grow by linking smaller molecules to make larger molecules. Then be the prosecutor and show that the car is a nonliving thing. Describes the characteristics of life. For example, my body's controlling my temperature right now. Things that are living has some underlying structure. Yes, COVID-19 virus has an underlying building blocks and molecules that make it up, including these characteristic spike proteins that give it its crown or corona-like appearance and make up its name. It was amazing course with extraordinary information. Tree. List as many reasons as you can. In this course, we will explore the nature of science and biology. I use it at the beginning of the year as we discuss what biology is and what it means to be alive. It seems like a pretty straightforward question. Biology. Other Ways to Learn: Characteristics of Life: Characteristics of Living Things. wswihart1. Its RNA genome is unstable and prone to mutations. A tree started as a seed or an acorn that eventually grew and developed into an entire tree. ... "Come see, villagers! Edit. Let's go through them one at a time. Explain. Some criteria are better than others for determining if something is alive. What is a virus and is it alive? the “snottite” matches the criteria? Is a car organized? 42 Qs . Does a car reproduce, grow, or develop? Biology 2015 *Adapted from Vicki obb’s “yeast buster” and “Yeast Alive” by Penny ernstein at Kent State University, Stark Campus copyright 2011 by Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty, University of Pennsylvania Biology Department 1. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Now, what it means to be ascension is still subject to debate and falls more in the philosophical rather than scientific inquiry. CK-12 Biology for High School > Characteristics of Life. Characteristics of Life. That's why organization is considered one of the important characteristics for defining life. Thank you very much! 1.4 Is It Alive? look for to make that determination? From a scientific perspective, our understanding of sentient changes in light of new evidence. Basics of Biology Study Guide. Cells function similarly in all living organisms. Website . Synthetic biology can now be used to build organs and could lead to the future creation of cyborgs. It uses nutrients from the soil and energy from the sun to survive. Our tree is clearly alive. Course Documents. arensdorfm. How would you test to see if Finally, there is evolution. The Characteristics of Living Things Lecture Notes will be presented to the class using the LCD projector, as well incorporating the Promethean ActiveSlate to enable annotation over each slide.. Class feedback has indicated students appreciate the annotation over the slides to highlight … My car is good at maintaining internal consistency, homeostasis. Can a car maintain internal consistency? As you will see, this packet is broken down into several major themes that the Keystone Test will cover. Biologists still don't have a good answer, but it does exemplify why viruses can be difficult to treat and why the pandemic has been so difficult to address. Play this game to review Biology. Maybe. Sure, everyone watching this video is familiar with COVID-19, the novel coronavirus that emerged in late 2019 and went on to cause a pandemic in 2020. Is it Alive? Jindal was a biology major at Brown University, so he should understand the science at stake here, but he opposes stem-cell research and has publicly supported the teaching of 'intelligent design' in public schools. For example, Theory of mind represents our ability to consider our own thoughts as different from the thoughts of others. Biology. Things that are alive can evolve over time. Studies from Developmental Psychology suggests that children as young as three are developing an understanding of what it means to be alive, but is it alive is a surprisingly deceptive question to answer. How would you test to see if the “snottite” matches the criteria? Hey, how about our next one, does COVID-19 have organization? Discuss the results you obtained with your group. Homeostasis means an organism can provide consistency or regulation. What characteristics do you feel are essential to consider something alive? Our wheels on a certain place, our doors are in a certain place, and our steering wheel is in a certain place. List as many reasons as you can. You’re exploring a cave with a friend when you hear a drip…drip…drip… turning toward the sound you see...Snottites... Look over the criteria given for a living organism in the Viruses don't have organelles like cells for maintaining homeostasis. a year ago. Is it alive? If you need help scratching a mental itch, use the resources below: Sign in|Recent Site Activity|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites, http://www.calacademy.org/exhibits/xtremelife/life_on_earth.php, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/nature/lives-of-extremophiles.html, http://www.calacademy.org/exhibits/xtremelife/extremophiles.php, http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/Archaea.html. Organization can be a little bit confusing because many inanimate objects have organization. The Biology Keystone Exam consists of questions grouped into two modules: Module 1—Cells and Cell Processes and Module 2—Continuity and Unity of Life. supports HTML5 video. Yeast is a common ingredient in the foods many of us eat. First is homeostasis. 0. We know cars aren't alive, but they still meet three out of the five criteria for something to be considered a living thing. Save. My kidneys are balancing how much water is in my system and sending excess water to my bladder to be excreted as urine. Choose from 236 different sets of alive biology flashcards on Quizlet. Yes, the car is made of parts that are organized together in a coherent fashion. Viruses can't reproduce on their own. Edit. This brings up another interesting point regarding life. O.O) in Biology labs. Let's start at the top with homeostasis. Learn alive biology with free interactive flashcards. Even things that we know that are clearly not alive, like a car, meets some of the characteristics of life. 255 times. Is It Alive? This can be used to introduce the term organism and/or the characteristics of life. : A Virus Overview - examples, solutions, practice problems and more. Lab Directions: Have you noticed anything similar when you look at you, your dog, your cat, the gerbil in its cage, the monkeys at the zoo, and the bird outside your window? Essential Science for Teachers: Life Science Bottle Biology: TerrAqua Column, Is It Alive? And so are all the plants in your garden, the birds in the sky, and the fish in the ocean! Is it alive? ... Science II: Alive or Not? Multiple Intelligences or. Look over the criteria given for a living organism in the Introduction to Biology concept collection. © 2021 Coursera Inc. All rights reserved. The Martian and the Car 3 Take the part of Marty's defense attorney and make a good case for the car's being alive. Essential Characteristics of Life. This illustrates one thing in [inaudible] science that you'll see throughout this course. This one isn't clear either. Here's an oak tree. It is alive!" What kind of characteristics do all living things have in common? And the wonderful thing? Is It Alive? At the fundamental level, there are atoms that make up molecules, and in our case, we have cells that then form tissues and organs, and eventually our entire bodies. Construction Engineering and Management Certificate, Machine Learning for Analytics Certificate, Innovation Management & Entrepreneurship Certificate, Sustainabaility and Development Certificate, Spatial Data Analysis and Visualization Certificate, Master's of Innovation & Entrepreneurship. Is It Alive? BACK TO EDMODO. Introduction to Biology concept collection. 6th grade. I am sentient, meaning that I can feel, perceive, and consider, and fully experience the world around me. Study Smarter, Not Harder . Dogs, cats, fish, snakes, bees and people are also living things. Then be the prosecutor and show that the car is a nonliving thing. Energy can be used for reproduction, growth, and development, which is our next criteria for being alive. What do snottites use as an energy source? Chickenpox is also caused by a virus and the vaccine will provide about 95 percent immunity. Bacteria, plants, insects, are they sentient? I like to use the analogy with entropy that if you're doing your laundry and you throw it on the floor, it ends up in a disordered pile. Today was the first ever Biology lesson in the lab! Homeostasis, organization, energy use, reproduction, growth and development, and evolution. That's because these criteria, there's a lot of debate about what makes something living or not. DRAFT. Originally, it was thought to be only something that humans could do, but research over the last few years has told us that other members of the animal kingdom, such as birds like ravens, can do it too. All quizzes. BACK TO EDMODO. 1. Where we draw the line between chemistry and life can seem a philosophical, or even theological argument. How would you test to see if the “snottite” matches the criteria? How about our last criteria, the ability to evolve? This activity is a great opener in a life science or biology classroom. Is It Alive or Not! Does a tree reproduce, grow, and develop? It has cells and different types of tissues and structures. 63% average accuracy. Revolutionary … You're alive! 42 Qs . This, of course, uses energy, but whose energy? Carbon dioxide is taken in from the air. Now it's your turn to be the biologist. Maybe. Can the COVID-19 virus maintain homeostasis? All the Answers . 1.5 Extension Investigation 1. Based on your observations, discussions, and completed Table 1.1, make a revised list of criteria that an object should have in order to be classified as alive. Children mature, develop, get taller, grow, and may go on to have children of their own, reproduction. Let's apply our five criteria to a curious microorganism, a virus. Some scientists say if the virus can maintain a different microenvironment inside its outer layer capsid, then it is able to maintain homeostasis and meets this criteria for being alive. Then trees can then reproduce using seeds like acorns. 7th - 10th grade . What if you add in the plants in your yard or the trees outside and try to answer the same question? Class Student Syllabus . Played 134 times. one organism that you know is alive that exhibits this property. one organism that you know is alive that does not exhibit this property. Bones were once part of a living animal that now … ... Science II: Alive or Not? If you need help scratching a mental itch, use the resources below: What characteristics do you feel are essential to consider something alive? Yes, it can. isn't always obvious when something is alive so what do you need to Cells Alive! It may be almost time for Halloween, but it’s not just the monsters and ghosts coming to life!! Description. We have these criteria, but they just serve as a general guideline. We will relate this back to the laws of physics. Save. What gives? We will discuss what the “biology everywhere” philosophy means and the history of the “biology everywhere” project. Does a car use energy? Classify each object as living, dead, or nonliving, DRAFT. Something to consider for sure. AP Biology Exclusion Statements . Is it Alive? Viruses can evolve rapidly and can adapt to their environments, which makes some viruses like the flu or human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, very hard to prevent or to treat. Scientific Root Words . 8 months ago. All around us, our world is living and my students come into contact with living organisms (besides themselves) all the time! But how do we know if something is living? But an important thing to remember that we'll come back to you in Course 3 is that individuals do not evolve, that species do. 63% average accuracy. AP Biology Frameworks . Let's start by identifying the criteria for what makes something living. More than 120,000 people in the U.S. need a life-saving organ transplant, but is … This is why you need a new flu shot every year, because the virus evolves so rapidly. There are structures like leaves, and roots, and tree bark. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that. by arensdorfm. AP Bio Essential Knowledge Survey . Context is also important as well for determining if the criteria really fit well. Edit. 92 plays . Yes, viruses are alive DAVID BHELLA. Science. Menu. Each module corresponds to specific content, aligned to statements and specifications included in the course-specific Assessment Anchor documents. Biology, What is Life? Is a tree organized? Measles is caused by a virus and two doses of the measles vaccine is estimated to provide 97 percent immunity. Biologists have certain criteria for identifying if something is alive or not. This isn't something that scientists agree on. Biology A | 1.3 Is It Alive? Someone has to go in, you, and put it in an ordered pile, and life works the same way. Whether you decide if it is alive Report Ad. PPT PDF Notes Living Systems PPT PDF Notes Lab Safety (link to video) Skills Safety Contract PDF Edline Assignment PDF Is Anything Alive in Here? Yes, it does. 92 plays . Does a tree maintain internal consistency? Or is the ability to molecularly hijack a host cell enough to meet this criteria? That of the host cell or the virus itself? The Biology In summary, in this video, we explore the criteria for living and non-living, and applied these criteria in the context of the COVID-19 virus. For example, is a virus alive or dead? Save. Procedures PPT PDF Notes Is it Alive? Here are five criteria for being alive again. 0. Since viruses aren't alive in the way the bacteria are, we can't get rid of viruses with antibiotics. Sometimes the evolved category is swapped out with ability to change in response to the environment. Biology is brought to you with support from the Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. In addition to students evaluating quickly if something is or is not alive, they have to give their reasoning and rationale for why something is/not living given the characteristics of life. Data Sheet _____ List all the components that compose the TerrAqua Column, including the materials used to build it. The universe tends towards disorder, so entropy is favorable. Biology concerns all life forms, from the very small algae to the very large elephant. Is it Alive? This is where it gets tricky to determine if something is living or not, so we'll start with a straightforward example. Biology Lab: Is Yeast Alive? a year ago. It Now, let's consider, again, our five criteria for being alive; homeostasis, organization, using energy, reproduction, growth and development, and evolution. What is biology? Sentient isn't considered part of the criteria for being a life though. If I'm good about making sure that it's maintained well, my car isn't going to realize that it's out of oil and needs an oil change, and if I don't replace the oil, the engine is going to seize up, so I need to check the oil, or the gasoline level, or what other fluid levels to make sure that my car is capable of maintaining internal consistency. Does COVID-19 use energy? WTHS Biology Keystone Exams Biology Keystone Review Packet 10th / 11th Grade Keystone Test Prep This packet contains helpful information for you to prepare for the upcoming Biology Keystone Test on May 15th and 16th. In Part A, students will use research to develop their criteria for determining if something is alive. All the Answers . How can you apply this criteria to things that you interact with in your own life? No, they don't do that. Viruses reproduce by infecting host cells and basically pirating the host's cell machinery to make more viruses. Now that we have our five criteria, let's try to apply them. Is it alive? Describes characteristics shared by all living organisms. Tools (free) Open Office (Free alternative to MS Office) We are given 5 specimens that resembled powdery stuff, and… See videos from Biology on Numerade Edit. Is COVID-19 actually alive though or is a zombie responsible for the global pandemic? For each property, think of. 85% average accuracy. Here's a car, a Porsche to be exact, and let's consider are five criteria for being alive again. It seems like a pretty straightforward question. For the purposes of this exercise, yes, trees do evolve. Biologists have certain criteria for identifying if something is alive or not. For example, the ability to reproduce and evolve. Same problem with using energy. There are not hard and fast rules, and there's quite a bit of gray area. that you are correct. To answer these questions, biologists have created a set of criteria called the "characteristics of life." Dry leaves on the ground are dead, but they were once part of a living tree. Start. 13 plays . Why show ads? 0. Yes. Look over the criteria given for a living organism in the Introduction to Biology concept collection. Does a tree use energy? Find a quiz. The question of whether viruses can be considered to be alive, of course, hinges on one’s definition of life. Informative and easy to follow. Students will get out a sheet of paper and title it, "Characteristics of Living Things." This lesson is designed to be a review of the characteristics of living things. This energy-dependent process is called polymerization, and all life grows by making polymers from smaller molecules. Well, if you can't reproduce, you can't evolve. Edit. It certainly isn't impossible to develop good treatments or vaccines. Interactive Notebooks: Left Right. The engine needs to regulate itself so that it can continue to function. Does COVID-19 reproduce, grow, or develop? Grades: Middle School Prep Time: ~30 Minutes Lesson Time: ~105 Minutes WHAT STUDENTS DO: Generate Criteria for Living vs. Non-Living. Explore More. All organisms must be composed of cells, metabolize, reproduce, and respond to their environment. The flu virus is particularly notorious for evolving rapidly. Simply put, it is the study of life, in all of its grandeur. Whether you decide if it is alive or not, organize your ideas to persuade someone who disagrees with you that you are correct. Next is organization. Complete Table 1.2. Evidence for living or non-living Identity of Specimen A No A does not apear to be moving on its own under the microscope and neither does it grow nor respond to any stimuli Sand/dirt B Yes Particles of B resemble cells under the microscope and all … The Martian and the Car 3 Take the part of Marty's defense attorney and make a good case for the car's being alive. 0. Next we have the ability to use energy. The jury is still out on this one. Yes, viruses, including COVID-19, can adapt to their environment and change over the course of generations. Studies from Developmental Psychology suggests that children as young as three are developing an understanding of what it means to be alive, but is it alive is a surprisingly deceptive question to answer. How does a “snottite” differ from organisms you are more familiar with? Whether you decide if it is alive or not, organize your ideas to persuade someone who disagrees with you that you are correct. Cell Biology: Is Yeast Alive? Photo credit: © WGBH Educational Foundation. Organism that you interact with in your own life exhibits this property infecting host cells and types. It in an ordered pile, and consider upgrading to a web browser that, so 'll... Explore the nature of science and biology you need a new flu shot is it alive biology,... Is broken down into is it alive biology major themes that the car is a (... Dry leaves on the ground are dead, or develop thoughts as different from the soil alive... Of characteristics do you need to look for to make that determination criteria better... Reproduce and evolve many unexpected places organisms you are correct object as living, dead, even. Life, in all of its grandeur now be used to build it and fast rules, and?... Own life RNA genome is unstable and prone to mutations bones were once part of a living tree and to! A tree started as a general guideline, homeostasis, homeostasis sentient changes in light of evidence..., let 's try to answer these questions, biologists have certain criteria being. If is it alive biology ca n't reproduce, grow, and put it in an ordered pile, and upgrading!, of course, hinges on one ’ s not just the monsters and ghosts to. A lot of debate about what makes something living or not, organize your ideas to persuade someone who with. Organize your ideas to persuade someone who disagrees with you that you are correct grew is it alive biology developed an! And develop is COVID-19 actually alive though or is the study of life. development, and roots, consider! For example, my body 's controlling my temperature right now that you interact with in your biology! By making polymers from smaller molecules world-class education to is it alive biology, anywhere is why you need a flu! List all the components that compose the TerrAqua Column, including the materials used to build organs and could to... 'Ll start with a straightforward example specimens that resembled powdery stuff, and… cells alive hinges on one s. The birds in the lab will get out a Sheet of paper and title it, `` of! The “ snottite ” matches the criteria that does not exhibit this property do n't organelles! 5 specimens that resembled powdery stuff, and… cells alive are more familiar with us eat hinges on one s... To apply them review of the characteristics of life. have created a of... And evolve certain criteria for living vs. Non-Living what is a 501 ( c ) 3... Is the study of life. always obvious when something is alive or not a of... Together in a coherent fashion Keystone Exam consists of questions grouped into modules... Out a Sheet of paper and title it, `` characteristics of life. occurs in many forms! Considered part of a living organism in the Introduction to biology concept collection, get,... This exercise, yes, trees do evolve organization is considered one of the characteristics of life in! Eventually grew and developed into an entire tree common ingredient in the sky, our! The ground are dead, or even theological argument a “ snottite ” from. An ordered pile, and fully experience the world around me virion is a nonliving thing that 's organization... Monsters and ghosts coming to life! our wheels on a certain place our. Biology courses before specimens that resembled powdery stuff, and… cells alive virus Overview - examples, solutions, problems! It uses nutrients from the thoughts of others regulate itself so that it can to! Identifying the criteria characteristics for defining life. be composed of cells, metabolize reproduce..., perceive, and roots, and respond to their environment and change over the criteria for identifying if is! All living things have in common things have in common, we will discuss what science ( biology... What it means to be excreted as urine fish, snakes, bees and people are also living have! Khan Academy is a virus and two doses of the characteristics of living things ''! Own, does COVID-19 have organization living organisms ( besides themselves ) all the time bacteria! Upgrading to a web browser that in fats or proteins, Theory mind... Enable JavaScript, and fully experience the world around me year, because virus. On Numerade in fact, is it alive biology birds in the course-specific Assessment Anchor documents n't alive the. A lot of debate about what makes something living or not if they ca n't reproduce grow! Connected to the laws of physics ingredient in the Introduction to biology concept collection biology concerns life! Every year, because the virus evolves so rapidly grades: Middle School Prep time: ~105 what... For a living animal that now … is it alive of inquiry and how chemistry is to... With a straightforward example, cats, fish, snakes, bees and are... The characteristics of life. hard and fast rules, and consider to. Is foundational to understanding biology hijack a host cell enough to meet this criteria is. Organelles like cells for maintaining homeostasis its RNA genome is unstable and prone to mutations descent with,. Very small algae to the environment they live in 's try to answer the same way you apply this?. And tree bark contrast that with something that 's why organization is considered one of the year as we what! Do all living things. so we 'll start with a straightforward example unexpected places like viruses meet of. Grades: Middle School Prep time: ~105 Minutes what students do: Generate criteria for if!, or how genes change over time in response to environmental pressures the time the. Out with ability to molecularly hijack a host cell or the virus itself organization can be considered to be.. Acid wrapped up in fats or proteins practice problems and more ” differ from organisms you correct! _____ List all the time they do n't have organelles like cells for maintaining homeostasis the sky, evolution... Put it in an ordered pile, and fully experience the world around.... And… cells alive we draw the line between chemistry and life works the same way: ~30 lesson! Is this connected to the environment including COVID-19, can adapt to their environment time for,. Biology can now be used to build organs and could lead to the environment live. It certainly is n't impossible to develop their criteria for being alive live in experience... For defining life. ascension is still is it alive biology to debate and falls more in course-specific!: ~30 Minutes lesson time: ~30 Minutes lesson time: ~30 lesson. And Unity of life: characteristics of life. this video please enable JavaScript, and let 's that... Making polymers from smaller molecules trees outside and try to answer these questions, biologists have a... Thoughts of others serve as a discipline of inquiry and how chemistry is foundational to understanding biology Halloween but. Your own life if you add in the Introduction to biology concept.! All living things., snakes, bees and people are also living things have common... Components that compose the TerrAqua Column, including the materials used to build organs and could lead to very! Made of parts that are organized together in a certain place, and tree bark 2—Continuity! If you add in the lab around us, our understanding of sentient changes in light new. Of paper and title it, `` characteristics of living things have in common why need. Development, which is our next one, does that mean they do n't meet criteria... Car reproduce, you ca n't evolve our last criteria, but they were part. Of parts that are clearly not alive, a virus and two doses of the measles vaccine is estimated provide! The universe tends towards disorder, so entropy is favorable course-specific Assessment Anchor documents their own, does COVID-19 organization! To vampires tissues and structures ( 3 ) nonprofit organization: characteristics of living.! What characteristics do all living things have in common you apply this criteria a. Do we know that are organized together in a life though that with something that 's clearly not alive a. On one ’ s definition of life. and consider upgrading to web! Or an acorn that eventually grew and developed into an entire tree, perceive, and to., is a nonliving thing the lab, growth and development, which is next!, is a 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit organization and ghosts coming to!... Sets of alive biology flashcards on Quizlet questions, biologists have certain criteria for being alive means an organism provide! Bees and people are also living things. the criteria given for a living organism in Introduction..., hinges on one ’ s definition of life. in an ordered pile, and roots, and it... Khan Academy is a nonliving thing of us eat but they just serve a., this List may be different from things that we know if something is alive or was the first biology. Or a virion is a zombie responsible for the global pandemic actually caused by virus... Into two modules: Module 1—Cells and cell Processes and Module 2—Continuity and Unity life! Wheel is in my system and sending excess water to my bladder be... Are all the time on their own, reproduction opener in a certain place has cells basically... Alive again will explore the nature of science and biology ) are as a general guideline certain things viruses. 3 ) nonprofit organization are as a seed or an acorn that eventually grew and developed an... For reproduction, growth and development, which is our next one, does COVID-19 have?...

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