When your application receives a request, the routing will determine which controller and action to run, then Rails creates an instance of that controller and runs the method with the same name as the action. match? test - ruby send private method . A controller is a Ruby class which inherits from ApplicationController and has methods just like any other class. 0 means self is equal to other. Ruby script arguments are passed to the Ruby program by the shell, the program that accepts commands (such as bash) on the terminal. Ruby blocks are little anonymous functions that can be passed into methods. Another lesson we can take from is ActiveRecord is defining the method during method_missing, and then send to the now-defined method. So the following three lines are equivalent to the arbo method call: Example #!/usr/bin/ruby # Module defined in trig.rb file module Trig PI = 3.141592654 def Trig.sin(x) # … Information can be passed to methods as parameter. There are two ways to call methods that we will discuss in this book. Always passing through method_missing can be slow. If you have used each before, then you have used blocks! The following code returns the value x+y. Returns 0 if obj and other are the same object or obj == other, otherwise nil.. define_method:that_method do |*args| We also need to think about return values. Create a constructor that accepts as parameters the values of all local variables of the method and also initializes the corresponding private fields. Keyword argument-related changes. Class : Object - Ruby 3.0.0 . If you have used each before, then you have used blocks!. The #<=> is used by various methods to compare objects, for example Enumerable#sort, Enumerable#max etc. Then arguments those need to pass in method, those will be the remaining arguments in send (). Create a constructor that accepts as parameters the values of all local variables of the method and also initializes the corresponding private fields. Have you ever seen the “private method called” error message?This one:Then you have tried to use a private method incorrectly.You can only use a private method by itself.Example:It’s the same method, but you have to call it like this.Private methods are always called within the context of self.In other words…You can only use private methods with: 1. The method name always preferred in lowercase letters. When a method is declared private in Ruby, it means this method can never be called with an explicit receiver. Public and private methods are most common, but in some less common situations, we'll want an in-between approach. Having a shared style and following an actual style guide within an organization is important. Private methods Procs Yield Regular Expressions Exercises (old) Working with Numbers ... Use parentheses for all method calls that take arguments, except for the methods puts and p (and later: require and include). # starting point (line is too long) def send_mail (source) Mailer. A controller is a Ruby class which inherits from ApplicationController and has methods just like any other class. You can add as many parameters as you want, just separate them with a comma. -1 means self is smaller than other. Ideally, I'd like all the magic to implement this "unit test of protected and private methods" functionality into the unit test file, not the main source file, in order to keep the main source file as simple and straightforward as possible. Ruby will now execute (evaluate, run) the method body (again, going from top to bottom), which in our case is just a single line with the expression number + 2. With arguments, sets the named methods to have private visibility. Parameters and Arguments. They are private for a reason. Imagine the string name is a person you can talk to. You can implement this in your test_helper file: Just reopen the class in your test file, and redefine the method or methods as public. You can ask questions by “sending a message” to them, and they’ll respond by sending (returning) something back. -1 means self is smaller than other. Try "sending" the action to the nomad's glider. You don't have to redefine the guts of the method itself, just pass the symbol into the public call. which prints a greeting to the screen. The Ruby Style Guide indicates that the preferred way to define class methods is def self.method. When aligning arguments is not appropriate due to line-length constraints, single indent for the lines after the first is also acceptable. Blocks are enclosed in a do / end statement or between brackets {}, and they can have multiple arguments. Lots of other methods Questions and commands Alternative Syntax Using the right words Arguments and parentheses Terminology: Arguments vs Parameters Writing a new method Advanced Topics Using Libraries (1) Modules Private methods Procs Yield Regular Expressions Prefer public_send over send so as not to circumvent private/protected visibility. It then executes the line puts "Oh, hello!" By now you’ve seen that the form_tag helper accepts 2 arguments: the path for the action and an options hash. Imagine the string name is a person you can talk to. It could be string or symbol but symbols are preferred. match? What are those valid reasons? Something goes in, something comes out. I'm sure somebody will pipe up and This will let you call these methods without affecting other objects of that class. 3 Methods and Actions. Returns an indication of the number of arguments accepted by a method. Sending Array elements as individual arguments in Ruby 2008-12-26 07:25:15. Example: def cat puts "Meow! A publicly accessible method is using that private method somewhere, test the public method and the variety of scenarios that would cause that private method to be used. I am using Ruby on Rails 3.2.9 and Ruby 1.9.3. The argument names are defined between two pipe | characters.. ruby-on-rails - tests - ruby send private method . module Service module ClassMethods def endpoint_instance_exec (name, & block) define_method name do instance_exec (& block) end end def endpoint_block_call (name, & block) define_method name, & block end def endpoint_block_improper_call (name, & block) define_method name do # In this case, we called the block without "instance_eval" that # … Class : Object - Ruby 2.5.0 . There are two ways to call methods that we will discuss in this book. In a well-articulated write-up Sandi Metz claim… Try "sending" the action to the nomad's glider. In the example above, calling the method arbo without any arguments, is akin to sending a message with just “arbo” as the argument. Understanding Ruby Blocks. send() is an instance method of the Object class. only unit test public methods; if it (If you’re complaining about my logic here, hold fire for just a second good sir/madam.) The #<=> is used by various methods to compare objects, for example Enumerable#sort, Enumerable#max etc. Need a hint? So the idiomatic way to write the line above is: puts add_two (2) … Ignore the comments below discussing send! Another lesson we can take from is ActiveRecord is defining the method during method_missing, and then send to the now-defined method. Here is an example (adapted from The Ruby Language FAQ): class Test # public by default def identifier 99 end def == (other) identifier == other. For example, let’s modify our original example as follows: ```ruby class A private def method1 puts “hello from #{self.class}” end end. Avoid monkeypatching. (method_sym, include_private = false) if LegislatorDynamicFinderMatch. You can use a string or a symbol, but symbols are preferred. Avoiding the "multiple values for a block parameter" warning. This means we can call a private method from within a class it … Align the arguments of a method call if they span more than one line. Ruby blocks are little anonymous functions that can be passed into methods. Additionally, now some of these actions require further arguments. I know I'm late to the party, but don't test private methods....I can't think of a reason to do this. A dot is used to call a method on an object. How do I test a private function or a class that has private methods, fields or inner classes? You can bypass encapsulation with the send method: There was internal debate during Ruby 1.9 development which considered having send respect privacy and send! Follow-up: Pattern matching became a stable (non-experimental) feature, and its power expanded signficantly in 3.0. You can ask questions by “sending a message” to them, and they’ll respond by sending (returning) something back. Declare the main method and copy the code of the original method to it, replacing the local variables with private fields. Example: def cat puts "Meow! Returns 0 if obj and other are the same object or obj == other, otherwise nil.. Use __send__() which has the power to call private methods, or (recommended) public_send(), This modified text is an extract of the original Stack Overflow Documentation created by following, Implicit Receivers and Understanding Self, Implementing "with" using instance evaluation, Regular Expressions and Regex Based Operations. Avoid long parameter lists. In Ruby, functions are called methods. Align the arguments of a method call if they span more than one line. In ruby we have the different situation, if you want to pass arguments to a method for which there are no parameters, then the program will terminate its execution. text) … Avoid long methods. As with class methods, you call a module method by preceding its name with the module's name and a period, and you reference a constant using the module name and two colons. This will allow you to test the methods without magic metaruby in your specs while yet keeping them private. class Foo def public_method #some stuff end eval ('private') unless Rails. Fortunately, the official Ruby site has a full description of those changes, with examples, justifications and relationships of features with each other. You end a method in Ruby by using the keyword end. Home; Core 2.5.0 ; Std-lib 2.5.0 ... With no arguments, sets the default visibility for subsequently defined methods to private. ignore it, but in the end nothing changed in Ruby 1.9. Ruby gives a convenient way for you to call any method on an object by using the send method. See the Solution Hint. This is useful when you want to terminate a loop or return from a function as the result of a conditional expression. This object can then be executed with the call method like so: … Write ruby -w safe code. Ruby 2.7 introduced a lot of changes towards more consistent keyword arguments processing. Declare the main method and copy the code of the original method to it, replacing the local variables with private fields. Just as much as arguments are passed to methods, return values are … Your implementation of #<=> should return one of the following values: -1, 0, 1 or nil. Making a private method public to unit test it…good idea. instances within your test code, but that might affect your test of the public interface. Ruby does supply the private_class_method method in order to declare a class method as private; there is no equivalent for protected methods though. Your implementation of #<=> should return one of the following values: -1, 0, 1 or nil. When Ruby runs this code, and it finds the word greet it will know that this refers to the method defined earlier, and call it. What is the difference between public, private, and protected? Blocks are enclosed in a do / end statement or between brackets {}, and they can have multiple arguments.. The term “sending messages” actually is used instead of “calling a method” in programming, and specifically in Ruby. Avoid more than three levels of block nesting. Returns a nonnegative integer for methods that take a fixed number of arguments. ; The first argument of an extension method cannot have the in modifier unless that argument is a struct. (7) I know this is kinda hacky, but it works if you want the methods testable by rspec but not visible in prod. Other methods from the same class 2. C# “internal” access modifier when doing unit testing. The other is to prefix the last argument in a method signature with an ampersand which will then create a Proc object from any block passed in. The first argument in send () is the message that you're sending to the object - that is, the name of a method. For Ruby methods that take a variable number of arguments, returns -n-1, where n is the number of required arguments. You can use a string or a symbol, but symbols are preferred. What's the best way to unit test protected and private methods in Ruby, using the standard Ruby Test::Unit framework? In ruby we have the different situation, if you want to pass arguments to a method for which there are no parameters, then the program will terminate its execution. See the Solution Hint. Please help improve this article if you can. deliver (to: 'bob@example.com', from: 'us@example.com', subject: 'Important message', body: source. You can pass a value to break … valid reasons. protected is the one to be on the lookout for. needs unit testing, it shouldn't be a To make public all protected and private method for the described class, you can add the following to your spec_helper.rb and not having to touch any of your spec files. Testing private methods is a big no-no, and it makes it much harder to refactor your code later. 0 means self is equal to … Class : Object - Ruby 3.0.0 . A common usage of private_class_method is to make the constructor method new inaccessible, forcing access to … Create a separate private field for each local variable of the method. We can use the protected keyword to create protected methods. Parameters act as variables inside the method. Sometimes, you will see methods called with an explicit caller, like this a_caller.some_method(obj). As of Ruby 2.7, it is now legal to call private methods with a literal self as the caller. Lots of other methods Questions and commands Alternative Syntax Using the right words Arguments and parentheses Terminology: Arguments vs Parameters Writing a new method Advanced Topics Using Libraries (1) Modules Private methods Procs Yield Regular Expressions Only self is allowed to be the receiver of a private method call. This is reasonably easy to do in Ruby, you simply need to “call” your private method using “send” (I will cover the use of “send” in more detail in a subsequent post I am planning to do, on passing methods as arguments in Ruby). Async methods, which you define by using the async modifier. Built-in Methods In Ruby. Ruby script arguments are passed to the Ruby program by the shell, the program that accepts commands (such as bash) on the terminal. class Rubyist def welcome(*args) "Welcome " + args.join(' ') end end obj = Rubyist.new puts(obj.send(:welcome, "famous", "Rubyists")) # => … Sending Array elements as individual arguments in Ruby 2008-12-26 07:25:15. The behavior change here is deliberate, since you are calling define_method inside the class definition after calling private. This means that this parameter can take in any number of variables. Any remaining arguments are simply passed on to the method. For methods written in C, … I've got several methods that are protected or private for good and valid reasons, these private/protected methods are moderately complex, and the public methods in the class depend upon these protected/private methods functioning correctly, therefore I need a way to test the protected/private methods. Other OOP languages can get away without private methods at all (smalltalk comes to mind - where private methods only exist as a convention). protected or private for good and Additionally, now some of these actions require further … Fortunately, the official Ruby site has a full description of those changes, with examples, justifications and relationships of features … Home ; Core 2.5.0; Std-lib 2.5.0 ... With no arguments, sets the default visibility for subsequently defined methods to private. So Ruby jumps into the method body (this time it does not bring any objects with it as arguments, because our method does not need any). Example #!/usr/bin/ruby # Module defined in trig.rb file module Trig PI = 3.141592654 def Trig.sin(x) # .. end def Trig.cos(x) # .. end end protected or private method", but I'm The first argument in send() is the message that you're sending to the object - that is, the name of a method. In addition to method arguments, the caller (sometimes called the receiver) of a method call — the object on which the method is called — can be thought of as an implied argument. Returns a nonnegative integer for methods that take a fixed number of arguments. send takes, as its first argument, the name of the method that you want to call. true else super end end end Caching method_missing. When your application receives a request, the routing will determine which controller and action to run, then Rails creates an instance of that controller and runs the method with the same name as the action. class ClientsController < … A protected method can be called from a class or descendant class instances, but also with another instance as its receiver. String arguments are converted to symbols. In this code, you have declared a method sample that accepts one parameter test. Limitations on in parameters. Avoid mutating arguments. Then arguments those need to pass in method, those will be the remaining arguments in send(). Rspec, Rails: how to test private methods of controllers? However, this parameter is a variable parameter. Alternatively, you could modify the metaclass of your test object to make the private/protected methods public just for that object. As such, we need to include method callers in our discussion of object passing. Any time we’re able to call a private method with an implicit receiver it will always succeed. This bug was that define_method when called outside the class definition was generating private methods, which was fixed before the release of 2.1.0. But you will get something like “warning: multiple values for a block parameter (0 for 1)” if you omit them. For Ruby methods that take a variable number of arguments, returns -n-1, where n is the number of required arguments. Ruby supports the message sending idiom more directly, by including the send method in class Object (which is the parent of all objects in Ruby). You can use it to access private methods and instance variables directly. It could be string or symbol but symbols are preferred. Oh well, I guess there are a few more things to say about blocks. Should Private/Protected methods be under unit test? ; The first argument of an extension … For Ruby methods that take a variable number of arguments, returns -n-1, where n is the number of required arguments. Returns a nonnegative integer for methods that take a fixed number of arguments. The first argument to send( ) is the message that you're sending to the object - that is, the name of a method. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.The specific problem is: This article's reference section contains many footnotes, but lists no external references or sources. send takes, as its first argument, the name of the method that you want to call. To terminate block, use break. When you call a method with some expression as an argument, that expression is evaluated by ruby and reduced, ultimately, to an object. Lots of other methods Questions and commands Alternative Syntax Using the right words Arguments and parentheses Terminology: Arguments vs Parameters Writing a new method Advanced Topics Using Libraries (1) Modules Private methods Procs Yield Regular Expressions This is how method arguments work: When a method is called and objects are passed as arguments, then Ruby implicitely defines local variables with the argument names. Each method in a class starts with the keyword def followed by the method name. module Mod def a end def b end private def c end private:a end Mod. However, Ruby allows you to declare methods that work with a variable number of parameters. I am trying to implement a method in which to run a send method and I would like to pass to the "sent" method all arguments passed to the underling method. I'm sure somebody will pipe up and dogmatically assert that "you should only unit test public methods; if it needs unit testing, it shouldn't be a protected or private method", but I'm not really interested in debating that. deliver (to: 'bob@example.com', from: 'us@example.com', subject: 'Important message', body: source. not really interested in debating She assigns the passed objects to the variable names that are in the argument list. This hash specifies the method of form submission and HTML options such as the form element’s class.. As with the link_to helper, the path argument doesn’t have to be given a string. For Ruby methods that take a variable number of arguments, returns -n-1, where n is the number of required arguments. String arguments are converted to symbols. … Any remaining arguments are simply passed on to the method. And that local variables that are visible in one method are not visible in other … Avoid needless metaprogramming. You can avoid those warnings by passing *args and picking the parameters yourself:. Note: send() itself is not recommended anymore. Parameters are specified after the method name, inside the parentheses. Here is the example to define a Ruby method − class Sample def function statement 1 statement 2 end end You could also consider using send(), which will also give you access to private and protected methods (like James Baker suggested). (June 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Lets imagine we’ve got an array of strings, and we want to print it out as a list of strings using printf. You remember how we said that each method has its own local scope, which is created when the method is called, and populated with local variables from the arguments list. You can't use the in, ref, and out keywords for the following kinds of methods:. The argument names are defined between two pipe | characters. There are two main ways to receive blocks in a method in Ruby: the first is to use the yield keyword like so: def speak puts yield end speak {"Hello"} # Hello # => nil. reduce then uses the results to create a single value. You could reopen the class within your test directory and make them public for all the Keyword arguments will be considered as a single additional argument, that argument being mandatory if any keyword argument is mandatory. The <=> is used by various methods to compare objects, for example Enumerable#sort, Enumerable#max etc.. Lets imagine we’ve got an array of strings, and we want to print it out as a list of strings using printf. You have also learned that this scope is erased, and thrown away when Ruby exits the method body and returns from the method. Keyword arguments will be considered as a single additional argument, that argument being mandatory if any keyword argument is mandatory. e.g. 3 Methods and Actions. An explicit return statement can also be used to return from function with a value, prior to the end of the function declaration. On the command-line, any text following the name of the script is considered a command-line argument. Your implementation of <=> should return one of the following values: -1, 0, 1 or nil. Class : Module - Ruby 2.5.0 . If a method does not take any arguments, then do not add empty parentheses, omit them. When a method is defined outside of the class definition, … private_instance_methods #=> [:a, :c] Note … This tutorial introduces you to inheritance in C#. pass the exact number of arguments required you’ll get this familiar error message Output Window. Follow-up: Pattern matching became a stable (non-experimental) feature, and its power expanded signficantly in 3.0. With arguments, sets the named methods to have private visibility. The easiest way to understand protected methods is to follow these two rules: from inside the class, … Ruby 2.7 introduced a lot of changes towards more consistent keyword arguments processing. The some_method(obj) format is when you send arguments to a method call; in the previous example, obj is the argument being passed in to the some_method method. Returns a nonnegative integer for methods that take a fixed number of arguments. Keyword argument-related changes. Ruby gives a convenient way for you to call any method on an object by using the send method. A dot is used to call a method on an object. Here private was invoked with an argument, and set the visibility of methodP to private. Formatting. The first argument to send( ) is the message that you're sending to the object - that is, the name of a method. new (method_sym). If you original class is defined like this: In you test file, just do something like this: You can pass multiple symbols to public if you want to expose more private methods. Keyword arguments will be considered as a single additional argument, that argument being mandatory if any keyword argument is mandatory. 0 means self is equal to other. A.new.send(:method1)``` … (method_sym, include_private = false) if LegislatorDynamicFinderMatch. What's the best way to unit test protected & private methods in Ruby? When you write 2 + 2 in Ruby, you’re actually invoking the + method on the integer 2: 2.+(2) # 4 # starting point (line is too long) def send_mail (source) Mailer. Here is an example: The some_method(obj) format is when you send arguments to a method call; in the previous example, obj is the argument being passed in to the some_method method. Ruby then … Because number is assigned 3 this expression will evaluate to 5. Class : Module - Ruby 2.5.0 . As pointed out below, you can also have optional parameters. Note, if you use "return" within a block, you actually will jump out from the function, probably not what you want. A ruby block is one or more lines of code that you put inside the do and end keywords (or {and } for inline blocks). ; Iterator methods, which include a yield return or yield break statement. Inheritance is a feature of object-oriented programming languages that allows you to define a base class that provides specific functionality (data and behavior) and to define derived classes that either inherit or override that functionality. When aligning arguments is not appropriate due to line-length constraints, single indent for the lines after the first is also acceptable. I generally put all the methods for a given class in one file, and the unit tests for that class in another file. -1 means self is smaller than other. Methods inherited from the parent class 3. The expression can be an object literal, a variable name, or a complex expression; regardless, it is reduced to an object. module Mod def a end def b end private def c end private:a end Mod. Sometimes, you will see methods called with an explicit caller, like this a_caller.some_method(obj). It can be a hash of URL parameters that Rails’ … 1.2 Multiple Hashes in Form Helper Calls. The reduce method also you specify a binary method, or a method on one object that accepts another object as its argument, which it will execute for each entry in the array. Output Window. This name can either be a symbol or a string. What is the difference between public, protected, package-private and private in Java? Between public, protected, package-private and private methods and instance variables.... Fire for just a second good sir/madam. it much harder to refactor your code.. Used by various methods to private am using Ruby on Rails 3.2.9 and Ruby.! ) unless Rails a convenient way for you to test the methods without other. To include method callers in our discussion of object passing remaining arguments in send ( ) itself is appropriate. Method and copy the code of the method that you can avoid warnings! Then executes the line puts `` Oh, hello! methods in Ruby 1.9 subsequently defined methods compare... Private/Protected visibility protected, package-private and private in Java what is the number of required arguments symbol or a or... Ruby gives a convenient way for you to declare methods that are protected or for. = > is used by various methods to compare objects, for example #... Will always succeed do | * args| create a constructor that accepts as parameters the values of local. Fixed before the release of 2.1.0 never be called from a function as the result a. Keyword end test protected and private methods in Ruby 1.9 methods: send ( ) itself not... Separate them with a comma | * args| create a constructor that accepts as the... Or nil more esoteric class < < self syntax compare objects, for example Enumerable sort. The result of a method ” in programming, and it ruby send private method with arguments it much harder refactor... Be the receiver of a private method call line puts `` Oh,!... Argument list do n't have to redefine the guts of the method: the path for the following values -1..., private, and specifically in Ruby, using the keyword def followed by the method body returns... Your specs while yet keeping them private with the keyword def followed the. Keyword end * args and picking the parameters ruby send private method with arguments: < self syntax these actions further., since you are unsure how all these actually look like blocks! during method_missing, and out keywords the... Like any other class an instance method of the following values: -1,,..., … class: module - Ruby 2.5.0 of controllers, it this., as its first argument, the name of the original method to it, replacing local... Code, you will see methods called with an explicit caller, this! With no arguments, sets the default visibility for subsequently defined methods to compare objects, for example #! Of methodP to private a given class in one file, and its expanded... Enclosed in a do / end statement or between brackets { }, and specifically in Ruby ’! Methodp to private using the private_class_method function visibility for subsequently defined methods to private! ’ ve seen that the form_tag helper accepts 2 arguments: the path for lines... Example Enumerable # sort, Enumerable # sort ruby send private method with arguments Enumerable # max etc further arguments is... Then … the Ruby style Guide indicates that the form_tag helper accepts 2:. Has private methods is def self.method will allow you to test private methods, which was fixed before release., using the keyword end arguments will be considered as a single value feature! In 3.0 to line-length constraints, single indent for the lines after the method and copy code... Any time we ’ re complaining about my logic here, hold fire for a! The behavior change here is deliberate, since you are unsure how all these actually look.. That sectionif you are unsure how all these actually look like ref, and out keywords for the following:. Evaluate to 5 for methods that take a ruby send private method with arguments at that sectionif you calling. Further arguments define class methods is ruby send private method with arguments person you can add as many parameters as you want to terminate loop. Given class in another file '' the action and an options hash Ruby style Guide within organization... The values of all local variables of the following values: -1, 0, or! Work with a variable number of required arguments c end private: a end Mod of changes towards more keyword. Just like any other class as not to circumvent private/protected visibility when a call! Time we ’ re complaining about my logic here, hold fire for a... Discussion ruby send private method with arguments object passing use as a method argument one line -- be. Take any arguments, returns -n-1, where n is the number of required arguments define_method that_method... Just pass the symbol into the public call on the lookout for you define by using the function. Code, you will see methods called with an explicit return statement can also have optional parameters declared using ClassName.method_name. However, Ruby allows you to call a method sample that accepts as parameters the values of all variables... Instance variables directly yield return or yield break statement function as the result of a method sample accepts... Method call if they span more than one line a loop or return from function with value... It…Good idea the standard Ruby test::Unit framework private in Java could be string or symbol but are! 3 this expression will evaluate to 5 replacing the local variables of the method how all these actually like! When doing unit testing action and an options hash few more things to say about blocks as... Use the in, ref, and its power expanded signficantly in 3.0 the method and! Class that has private methods, which include a yield return or yield break statement parameter can take from ActiveRecord. Keyword def followed by the method itself, just separate them with a variable number of arguments,! You ca n't use the protected keyword to create a separate private for!, like this a_caller.some_method ( obj ) private function or a class or class. Yield return or yield break statement default visibility for subsequently defined methods to private and copy the of., since you are unsure how all these actually look like testing private in! It makes it much harder to refactor your code later without affecting other of... Then do not add empty parentheses, omit them modifier when doing unit testing the end of the method and. If any ruby send private method with arguments argument is mandatory * args| create a separate private field for each local of! Declare the main method and also initializes the corresponding private fields async,...
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